Using Blockchain Technology to Curb Voter Fraud in Nigeria Prospects and Challenges

Main Article Content

Nelson Isibor https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2108-2944

Keywords

Blockchain, voter fraud, blockchain voting, Nigeria, digital voting

Abstract

Blockchain is gradually changing the way in which data is stored, accessed and processed. Could this help Nigeria to achieve free, fair and credible elections? This study discusses how blockchain technology could be used in that country’s electoral processes – specifically, how it could prevent electoral fraud by providing a secure and transparent way of storing and accessing voting data. It reviews existing literature on the subject, and analyses current and potential applications of blockchain technology in ensuring electoral integrity. The study does not focus on the computational aspects of blockchain, but on its potential to curb electoral fraud in Nigeria. It also discusses the potential benefits and challenges of implementing blockchain technology in electoral systems in Nigeria, examines the various policy considerations and potential solutions, provides actionable recommendations, and suggests areas where blockchain could be effectively integrated into Nigeria’s current electoral system.

Abstract 105 | PDF Downloads 58

References

Afrobarometer (2022) Preference for democracy remains high in Nigeria, but dissatisfaction with its quality is growing. At https://www.afrobarometer.org/articles/preference-for-democracy-remains-high-in-nigeria-but-dissatisfaction-with-its-quality-is-growing/. [Accessed 9 December 2022]
Agora (2018) Swiss-based Agora records first government election on blockchain as accredited observer in Sierra Leone. At https://medium.com/agorablockchain/swiss-based-agora-powers-worlds-first-ever-blockchain-elections-in-sierra-leone-984dd07a58ee [Accessed 13 December 2022]
Ajayi, K. (2006) Security forces, electoral conduct and the 2003 general elections in Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences, 13 (1): 57–66. https://doi.org/10.1080/09718923.2006.11892531
Ajayi, O. (2022) 2023: APC kicks against deployment of BVAS, IReV. At https://www.vanguardngr.com/2022/11/2023-apc-kicks-against-deployment-of-bvas-irev-2/ [Accessed 8 December 2022]
Alam, M., M.O. Yusuf and N. A. Sani (2020) Blockchain technology for electoral process in Africa: a short review, International Journal of Information Technology, 12(3): 861–867. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41870-020-00440-w
Anusionwu, F. (2020) University of Jos, Nigeria, develops Univote, a Blockchain Dapp, for its university elections. At https://www.blockchainafrica.io/university-of-jos-nigeria-develops-univote-a-blockchain-dapp-for-its-university-elections-in-2020/ [Accessed 13 December 2022].
Bassey, P. (2022) Citizens trust in electoral integrity (elections poll). At https://noi-polls.com/citizens-trust-in-electoral-integrity-elections-poll/ [Accessed 14 December 2022].
Casimir, A., E. Omeh and C. Ike (2013) Electoral fraud in Nigeria: A philosophical evaluation of the framework of electoral violence. Open Journal of Political Science, 3(4): 167–174. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojps.2013.34023
Herian, R. (2020) Regulating blockchain: critical perspectives in law and technology. London and New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Ikuero, F., V. Germanos, L. Brooks and W. Zeng (2021) Are E-voting systems based on blockchain technology efficient in Nigeria general elections? ICST Transactions on Security and Safety, 7(25): 168964. https://doi.org/10.4108/eai.10-3-2021.168964
Kazeem, Y. (2018) The world’s first blockchain-powered elections just happened in Sierra Leone. Ar https://qz.com/africa/1227050/sierra-leone-elections-powered-by-blockchain/ [Accessed 8 December 2022]
Niranjanamurthy, M., B.N. Nithya and S. Jagannatha (2019) Analysis of blockchain technology: pros, cons and SWOT. Cluster Computing, 22(S6): 14743–14757. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10586-018-2387-5
Nwangwu, C., V.C. Onah and O.A. out (2018) Elixir of electoral fraud: The impact of digital technology on the 2015 general elections in Nigeria. Cogent Social Sciences, 4 (1): 1549007. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2018.1549007
Oladayo, J. (2021) Professor docked for election fraud reveals how polls were falsified. At https://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/438899-professor-docked-for-election-fraud-reveals-how-polls-were-falsified.html [Accessed 13 December 2022]
Oloja, M. (2022) Who is afraid of BVAS and INEC? At https://guardian.ng/opinion/who-is-afraid-of-bvas-and-inec/ [Accessed 9 December 2022].
Onyedinefu, G. (2022) Nigeria’s illiteracy rate is now 31%, says FG. At https://businessday.ng/news/article/nigerias-illiteracy-rate-is-now-31-says-fg/ [Accessed 8 December 2022]
Pathak, M., A. Suradkar, A. Kadam, A. Ghodeswar and P. Parde (2021) Blockchain Based E-Voting System. International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology: 134–140. https://doi.org/10.32628/IJSRST2182120
Pratt, J., N. Bradley, E. Zavesky. N. Marathe T. and Innes (2019) Us Patent Application for Blockchain Based Information Management Patent Application (Application #20190384932 Issued December 19, 2019) - Justia Patents Search. At https://patents.justia.com/patent/20190384932 [Accessed 13 December 2022]
Sandner, P. (2019) Violence and fraud in Nigeria’s gubernatorial elections. Deutsche Welle, 27 March 2019. At https://www.dw.com/en/violence-and-fraud-in-nigerias-gubernatorial-elections/a-48083171 [Accessed 13 December 2022.
Tunmibi, S. and W. Olatokun (2022) Anomalies in Nigeria presidential election data and the way forward. Election and Democracy in the Digital Age - Status, Challenges, and Trends [Working Title]. IntechOpen. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.106657
Ufuoma, V. (2022) 2023: INEC speaks on allegations of underage voters in national register. At https://www.icirnigeria.org/2023-inec-speaks-on-allegations-of-underage-voters-in-national-register/ [Accessed 14 December 2022]
Ugwuede, K. (2018) Elections in Nigeria: What would blockchain do (WWBD)? At https://techcabal.com/2018/12/19/elections-in-nigeria-what-would-blockchain-do-wwbd/ [Accessed 8 December 2022]
Wright, A. and P. De Filippi (2015) Decentralized blockchain technology and the rise of lex cryptographia. Rochester, NY. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2580664