Assessment of the Availability and Penetration of Solar PV, Wind and Biogas in Ghana

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Amevi Acakpovi
Joana Mendy Okechukwu
Patrick Adjei
Eric Asamoah


Solar PV, Global Warming, Biogas, Renewable Energy Policy, Wind Power


Access to energy is pivotal to the socio-economic growth of many developing countries, including Ghana. Energy generation from fossil fuels is not sustainable and leads to global warming, which is detrimental to the environment. This study seeks to establish how renewable energies are embedded and utilised in the Ghanaian energy system and the factors that can expedite the speedy penetration of renewable technologies into the country, particularly solar PV, wind, and biogas. The study adopted a mixed research approach which includes quantitative and qualitative studies. The findings revealed that solar energy is the most available resource in the country compared to other renewables. It was also indicative that integrating solar PV, wind and biogas in the national electricity grid will improve the percentage of energy generation mix, which will help sustain constant power supply, reduce the cost of energy charges, and consequently improve the country’s economy. The results also showed the possible factors that affect future penetration of these technologies, including unavailability of consumer financing opportunities, inadequate training facilities, lack of adequate regulations/policies, lack of information on the cost and benefits of renewable energies. The six findings of the paper established the availability of renewables in Ghana and the prospect of their related technology. While solar PV is on the ascendency, biogas is progressing gradually and wind is moving at a snail’s pace. This study significantly established the benefits of incorporating solar PV, wind and biogas in the Ghanaian energy mix to improve the electricity supply and further outlined the impeding factors that need to be improved upon through policy.

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